اقتصاد و باروری (نظریه ها و نقدها)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

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چکیده

در این مقاله تلاش می شود، با بررسی نظریه های مهم اقتصادی در موضوع باروری از زمان آدام اسمیت تا دوران معاصر، تقسیم بندی مناسبی از این نظریه ها ارائه شود. بر اساس یافته های این پژوهش، تقسیم بندی این نظریه ها به خرد و کلان بهترین تقسیم بندی برای این موضوع است و نظریه های خرد استحکام نظری بیشتری دارند. با این حال، نظریه های خرد نیز کلیت یکپارچه ای نیستند و تفاوت های فراوانی بین آنها وجود دارد. از سوی دیگر، عموماً به نظریه های اقتصادی و از جمله نظریه های اقتصادی در موضوع باروری انتقادی مهم مبنی بر نادیده گرفتن نقش نهادها وارد است. در واقع، مطالعات گوناگون نهادگرایان و اندیشمندان علوم شناختی نشان می دهد که فرض عقلانیت کامل که سنگ بنای رویکرد اقتصادی است، فرض درستی نیست؛ لذا در تحلیل رفتار افراد باید به عواملی مانند فرهنگ، ایدئولوژی، عرف و غیره که نهادگرایان آنها را ذیل عنوان نهاد تعریف می کنند، توجه کرد. امری که در تحلیل باروری نیز باید به آن توجه شود. بررسی های گوناگونی نشان داده اند که نهادها نقش مهمی بر باروری دارند و این در حالی است که در تحلیل های اقتصادی از این مسئله غفلت می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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