فراتحلیل مطالعات تجربی تأثیر بعد خانوا ر در موفقیت حرفه ای زنان در کشورهای مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تعاون و رفاه اجتماعی دانشگاه علامه طباطبای

چکیده

یکی از دغدغه های کنونی زنان، به ویژه تحصیل کرده ها، تضاد میان شغل و خانواده است. آنها فکر می کنند اگر متأهل شده و صاحب فرزند شوند دیگر نمی توانند به پیشرفت شغلی برسند. پرسش اصلی این تحقیق آن است که آیا در تجربه واقعی خانواده ها تأهل و داشتن فرزند بیشتر مانع پیشرفت شغلی می شود؟ آیا این موضوع یک گزاره جهان شمول است که در جوامع مختلف وجود دارد؟ برای پاسخ به این پرسش با استفاده از روش فراتحلیل 55 تحقیق تجربی در کشورهای مختلف در خصوص رابطه وضعیت زناشویی و تعداد فرزندان از یک طرف و موفقیت شغلی از طرف دیگر مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. دو رویکرد نظری کلی در این باره مطرح شده است. 1) رویکرد فشار نقشها؛ که معتقد است نقش های خانوادگی و شغلی بر همدیگر فشار می آورند به طوری که ایفای یکی از آنها بر کیفیت ایفای دیگری اثر منفی می گذارد. 2) رویکرد هم افزایی نقش ها؛ معتقد است که نقش های خانوادگی و شغلی همدیگر را تقویت می کنند، به طوری که منابع و موفقیت های بدست آمده در یکی، موجب موفقیت در دیگری می شود. 3) رویکرد مکانیسم های تأثیر نقش ها؛ معتقد است که ایفای نقش های خانوادگی از طریق علل تقویت کننده و تضعیف کننده بر روی شغل هم آثار مثبت دارد و هم آثار منفی. با این رویکرد تقویت عوامل مثبت و تضعیف عوامل منفی موجب تأثیر مثبت خانواده بر شغل می شود. نتیجه فراتحلیل تحقیقات تجربی آن است که هیچ گزاره عامی را در این باره نمی توان گفت؛ در برخی شرایط افزایش تعداد فرزندان و تأهل بر روی موفقیت شغلی تأثیر منفی، در برخی شرایط تأثیر مثبت و در برخی شرایط تأثیر معناداری ندارد. به عبارت دیگر تعداد فرزندان و تأهل در شرایط مختلف، تأثیرات متفاوتی بر موفقیت شغلی می گذارد. این به معنای آن است که در برخی شرایط عوامل مثبت برجسته می شوند و در برخی شرایط عوامل منفی. بنابراین می توان گفت رویکرد مکانیسم های تأثیر نقشها از میان رویکردهای دیگر به واقعیت نزدیک تر است.

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