نیروهای حافظ صلح سازمان ملل متحد و مسئله‌ی استفاده‌ی جنسی و سوءاستفاده جنسی از زنان (SEA)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی حقوق دانشگاه قم

چکیده

نیروهای حافظ صلح سازمان ملل متحد (کلاه آبی­ها) از سال 1948 تاکنون حدود 75 عملیات در نواحی مختلف برای محدود ساختن یا جلوگیری از برخورد و حفظ صلح  داشته­اند، اما این نهاد هنوز برای نظارت و مجازات اعضای متخلف خود اشکالات ساختاری دارد؛ به­طوری­که در دو دهه­ی اخیر اخبار تکان­دهنده­ای از تعرضات و تجاوزات جنسی برخی از این نیروها در کشورهای محل مأموریتشان - که دچار خشکسالی، جنگ و بیماری بوده­اند- گزارش شده است. طرح حدود 500 دعوای سوءاستفاده­ی جنسی علیه پرسنل حافظان صلح سازمان ملل موجب انتقادهای شدید و خدشه­دار شدن اعتبار سازمان ملل است. بر این اساس، نوشتار حاضر با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه­ای و روش توصیفی- تحلیلی عملکرد این نهاد را نقد کرده و راهکارهایی برای کاهش و رفع این سوءاستفاده­ها - آن هم توسط نیروهایی که خود منادی حمایت از صلح و حقوق بشر هستند- پیشنهاد داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


1-      توحیدی، احمدرضا، 1393. حقوق سازمان­های بین­المللی، تهران: میزان.

2-      شناسنامه سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، تهران: وزارت امورخارجه، 1362.

3-      Anetake, Machiko. “Whose Zero Tolerance Counts? Reassessing aZero Tolerance Policy against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers.” International Peacekeeping, 17 (2), (2010).

4-      Arim, Sabrina, and Kyle Beardsley. “Female Peacekeepers and Gender Balancing: Token Gestures or Informed Policymaking?” International Interactions, 39 (4), (2013).

5-      Bridges, Donna, and Debbie Horsfall. 2009. “Increasing Operational Effectiveness in UN Peacekeeping toward a Gender-Balanced Force.” Armed Forces & Societ, 2009.

6-      Cohen, Dara Kay, "Explaining Rape during Civil War: Cross-National Evidence (1980–2009)."American Political Science Review, 2012.

7-      Cohen, Dara Kay, Amelia Hoover Green, and Elisabeth Jean Wood."Wartime Sexual Violence: Misconceptions, Implications, and Ways Forward."United States Institute of Peace, February.2013

8-      Cohen, Dara Kay. "Explaining Rape during Civil War: Cross-National Evidence)."American Political Science Review, 107 (03), (2013).

9-      Dunkle, et al. 2006.

10-  Dunkle, Kristin L et al. 2006. “Perpetration of Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviour among Young Men in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa:” AIDS, 2015

11-  http://www.un.org/womenwatch /osagi/wps.

12-  http://peacekeeping.un.org/en (2019/2/26).

13-  http://pseataskforce.org/uploads/tools/resolutionof the ga investigation in to sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in West Africa ares57306_unga_english.pdf

14-  http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/wps/

16-  https://undocs.org/A/70/357

17-  https://undocs.org/A/70/729

18-  https://undocs.org/S/2015/446

19-  https://undocs.org/S/2015/716

20-  International Peacekeeping, 2007, p12.

21-  Jennings, Kathleen… “Protecting Whom? Approaches to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Operations,” FafoReport, Oslo2008

22-  Ladies Last: Peacekeeping and Gendered Protection,” in Ismene Gizelis and Louise Olsson, Eds, a Systematic Understanding of Gender, Peace, and Security: Implementing UNSC 1325. London: Routledge, p88.

23-  Lutz, Catherine, Matthew Gutmann, and Keith Brown. “Conduct and Discipline in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Culture, Political Economy and Gender.” Report submitted to the Conduct and Discipline Unit, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, Oct. 19, 2009.

24-  Lynch, Colum. 2004. “U.N. Sexual Abuse Alleged in Congo Peacekeepers Accused in Draft Report,” Washington Post, December 16, 2004; Washington Post, December 16, 2004; Page A26.

<http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3145-2004Dec15.html> (January 12, 2015).

25-  Managing Unintended Consequences of Peace Support Operations,"Stockholm: FOI, Swedish Defense Research Agency,2009

26-  Melander, Erik. a. “Gender Equality and Intrastate ArmedConflict.” International Studies Quarterly,2005,p17

27-  Nordås, Ragnhild, and Siri C. A. Rustad... “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation.” International Interactions, 2013. 

28-  Nordås, Ragnhild, and Siri C. A. Rustad… “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation.” International Interactions, 2013, p45.

29-  Prioli, M. 2005. “Primed for Violence: The Role of Gender Inequality in Predicting Internal Conflict.” International Studies Quarterly49 (2): 161–78.

30-  Sabrina Karim & Kyle Beardsley,  Explaining sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions: The role of female peacekeepers and gender equality in contributing countries,Volume: 53 issue: 1, page(s): 100-115, ,published: January 1, 2016.

 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0022343315615506

31-  Sjoberg, Laura, and Sandra E Via. 2010. Gender, War, and Militarism: Feminist Perspectives. 1st ed. Santa Barbara, CA: ,Praeger

32-  Smith, Joshua G. Victoria K. Holt, and William J. Durch. 2007. “Enhancing United Nations Capacity to Support Post-conflict Policng and Rule of Law,” Stimson Center Report No. 63.

http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Stimson_UNPOL_Report_Nov07.pdf > (July 14, 2015).

33-  Stern, Jenna. 2015.  Reducing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping: Ten Years after the Zeid Report. Stimson Center policy brief. 2015 

http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/PolicyBriefSexualAbuse-Feb-2015- WEB.pdf on 22 February 2010.

34-  UN Security Council, Security Council resolution 2272 (2016) [on sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations peacekeepers], 11 March 2016, S/RES/2272 (2016), available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/56e915484.html [accessed 28 February 2019]           

35-  Valenius, Johanna.2007. “A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations.” International Peacekeeping.

36-  Valenius, Johanna, 2007. “A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations” , International Peacekeeping.

37-  Whitworth, Sandra. Men, Militarism, and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 2007,

Women’s participation in UN peacekeeping operations: agents of change or stranded symbols?"NOREF Report, Oslo: NOREF